Permanent exclusion refers to a pupil who is excluded and will not come back to that school (unless the exclusion is overturned).

Fixed term or temporary exclusion refers to a pupil who is excluded from school for a set period of time.

Who is more likely to be excluded?

It is more common for children with a mental health condition or additional learning needs (also known as SEND or ASN) to be excluded from school, than those without.

Children from certain ethnic communities – including black, mixed race, Gypsy, Roma, and Irish Travellers - also have higher chances of being excluded when compared to their White British peers.

The most common reason for children being excluded from school, either permanently or for a fixed period of time, is for persistent disruptive behaviour.

Boys are significantly more likely than girls to be excluded from school. While exclusion in primary school is far less common than in secondary school, studies suggest that schools might be missing opportunities to identify boys’ needs early and divert primary-age boys away from a pathway to exclusion.

Girls who are in care, or have been looked-after, are also more likely to be excluded than girls who haven’t been supported by social care.

Exclusions across the UK

There are significant differences between the exclusion rates of England, Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland. The vast majority of children permanently excluded in the UK are from schools in England.

The link between exclusions, mental health and additional learning needs

Boys are twice as likely as girls to present with severe and persistent behavioural problems (or conduct disorder). As persistent disruptive behavior is the most common reason for children being excluded from primary schools, boys are then more likely than girls to be excluded from school. 

Boys are also more likely to be identified as having additional learning needs, and children with these needs are more likely to be excluded from school.  

What schools can do to support pupils who are at risk of being excluded

Exclusion often isn’t effective in changing pupil behaviour, particularly if it doesn’t address underlying problems. If a child is excluded before they are offered help, it can represent a critical turning point increasing the likelihood of that child developing poorer mental health and other multiple poor outcomes.

Schools are often very reluctant to exclude children until a range of options have been exhausted. Behaviour policies, for example, usually set out the importance of alternatives to exclusion wherever possible, but there can be significant variations in rates of exclusions from area to area.

Look at what additional support more at-risk children may need

  • Children at risk of exclusion should have a full assessment to identify whether they have unmet mental health needs. Schools should also consider what additional support or alternative provision may be needed for these children.
  • Interventions to address persistent poor behaviour before it becomes entrenched are often not used enough. It is essential for schools to take a preventive and early intervention approach to exclusion. The most effective interventions for children with severe and persistent behavioural problems are those that help parents develop strategies to settle children’s behaviour.

Engage parents and carers

  • Placing parents and carers at the centre of discussions about decisions relating to their child is important to help reduce the risk of permanent exclusion.
  • Communicating with parents and carers during the transition period from primary to secondary school is particularly important as this is a key point where children with additional needs are at even greater risk of being excluded.
  • Encourage parents and carers of pupils returning from a fixed-period exclusion to attend the school to discuss how their child might best re-engage and succeed.

Monitor and keep track of exclusions

  • Build in regular senior leadership team sessions to monitor and critically analyse exclusion data.
  • Take decisive action when there are any sudden changes in trends or where there is evidence of exclusions affecting particular groups of children from specific sections of the community.
  • Work collaboratively with local community leaders and with families to problem-solve early intervention strategies. Consider peer mentoring for at-risk boys by male community members to support school re-engagement, aspiration, self-belief and progress. See models and programmes like Up My Street and Southside Young Leaders Academy. Also consider sharing good practice and effective strategies across schools in your area to reduce exclusions.

Managing persistent behavioural problems

Children as young as two or three can have persistent behavioural problems – this is often how a child communicates that something is wrong or is a sign that they may be in distress. Such persistent behavioural problems can have a big impact on a child’s life outcomes, especially if they emerge before secondary school years.

Reasons underpinning each child’s behaviour can vary but there is good evidence about what makes a difference to these children and how schools can help them settle their behaviour.

Related resources

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No need to exclude strategy

This action plan aimed to reduce exclusions by means of a wellbeing strategy in schools.

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  • London Borough of Hackney

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Types of exclusions

Information about different types of school exclusions for parents.

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Present and not correct

Report on children with histories of exclusion.

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Guidance on school exclusion

Guidance, checklists and factsheets about school exclusion.

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